ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (Second Edition). The polypeptide structure distorts the coordination environment around the Cu away from ideal tetrahedral geometry, stabilizing the Cu(I) form, which explains the high reduction potential of this protein (∼+370 mV). The crystal structure of the trimeric PSI complex of the thermophilic cyanobacterium T. elongatus was solved at a resolution of 2.5 Å (Fromme et al., 2001; Jordan et al., 2001); a PSI monomer was shown to contain 12 protein subunits (PsaA-F, PsaI-M, and PsaX) and 127 cofactors: 96 Chls and 22 Cars; 2 phylloquinones (A1A and A1B); 3 [4Fe-4S] clusters; 1 putative Ca2 + ion; and 4 lipid molecules. PETE. plastocyanin: translation \\¦plastōˌ\ noun. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (Second Edition). PETE. Plastocyanin (PC) is a β-sheet protein (Figure 1) with a Cu atom that acts as the redox center. Iron is transported by transferrin whose binding site consists of two tyrosines, one aspartic acid and one histidine. Although Cyt c6 is absent, CRR1 homologs have been identified (Yamasaki et al., 2009; Bernal et al., 2012). Plastocyanin. Dernière mise à jour de la définition PLASTOCYANINE le 06/10/2011, par l'équipe d'auteurs-rédacteurs. Like plastocyanin from other species, it is an antiparallel β-barrel possessing a single copper atom, which is coordinated by two imidazole nitrogens (His37 and His87), a thioether sulfur (Met92), and thiolate sulfur (Cys84). Alexandrina Stirbet, ... Govindjee, in Cyanobacteria, 2019. PCC 6803, with an inactivated (or knockout) gene of the rod-core linker PcpG2 (see Section 4.1.1), has a unique type of PBS without a core. Northern analysis of total RNA, probed with a gene fragment for cyto- chrome c553 or the plastocyanin gene, showed that cells … (1968) and Tsujimoto et al. Normally expression of endogenous plastocyanin genes in plants is restricted to photosynthetic tissues only, whereas this foreign plastocyanin protein is found to be present in all tissues examined. Obtain the coordinates for the protein xylose isomerase (1XLK) and derive the coordination number and geometry for the manganese ions. Moreover, plastoquinone is present in the inner membrane of thylakoid, while plastocyanin is present in the lumen of the thylakoid. This is likely a permanent adaptation to long-term Cu deficiency experienced by these organisms. is an important copper containing protein involved in electron transfer. Presence of homologous sequence in the genome of,, Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Cyanobacteria: Relation to Photosynthesis☆, Introduction to Chlamydomonas and its Laboratory Use, Environmental Constraints and Stress Physiology, As a component of copper proteins, such as, The Science of Grapevines (Second Edition), Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics, Photosynthetic e-transport PS I (relative), Plastocyanin, electron transfer in plastid, CoproporphyrinogenIII oxidase, plastid heme synthesis, Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, plastid heme synthesis, Aerobic oxidative cyclase, tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway, Transcription factor, regulation of Cu deficiency response. The primary electron donor, P700, is ultimately reduced by plastocyanin or cytochrome c6. The cold sensitivity and reduced photosynthetic electron transport of a cyanobacterial plastocyanin mutant that compensates by increased expression of petJ encoding Cyt c6 are not inconsistent with this view (Clarke and Campbell, 1996). plastocyanin was present, whereas cytochrome c553 could not be detected. In the chloroplast of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a cytochrome c6-like protein is present, which was recently suggested to function as an alternative electron carrier to plastocyanin. (2014). The regulatory pathways (i.e., Cu sensor, cis-acting sequences and DNA-binding proteins) are not yet elucidated, but the petJ gene (encoding the Cyt) responds transcriptionally to Cu nutrition status while the petE gene (encoding plastocyanin) responds transcriptionally in some cases and posttranscriptionally in others (Briggs et al., 1990; Bovy et al., 1992). It is shown that cyt. In contrast, the fourth ligand, methionine, coordinates CuII at an unusually long distance, anywhere from 2.69 to 2.94 Å, depending on the source of plastocyanin. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. QED. Such Cu accumulation may diminish uptake of P, Fe, and, in sandy soils, Mg and Ca. Participates in electron transfer between P700 and the cytochrome b6-f complex in photosystem I. There are several indications that plastocyanin mediates electron transport between cytochrome f and P700 [a-61. One should be a 2Fe2S protein and another a 4Fe4S protein. Since the b6f complex in these organisms transfers electrons to both PS I and Cyt oxidase, the proteins serve both respiration and photosynthesis (Sandmann and Malkin, 1984). While the CuIINδ(His) bond distances (1.91 Å and 2.06 Å) are in the normal range for cupric-imidazole bonds, the CuIISγ(Cys) distance (2.07 Å) is shorter than a normal cupric-thiolate bond, which usually has a bond distance of 2.3–2.9 Å.35 This structural feature has been shown to be responsible for its unusually narrow A∥ in EPR (see Section and its high ET efficiency (see Section noun Etymology: Greek plastos + English cyan + 1 in Date: 1961 a copper containing protein that acts as an intermediary in photosynthetic electron transport The main function of the small integral subunits PsaF, PsaI, PsaJ, PsaK, and PsaL is the stabilization of the core PSI antenna system. QED. Go to the PDB and remove the coordinates for two redox proteins. plastocyanin. Arnon's proposal that plastocyanin functions only in the PS II reactions, and not in PS I, is, seemingly, in direct contradiction to the findings on mutants ac-208 and ac-208(sup). Table 10.7. PC structures are taken from the Protein Data Bank from Berman HM, Westboro J, Feng Z, et al. 2. Meanwhile, plastocyanin is a copper-containing water-soluble protein that accepts electrons from cytochrome b 6 f and passes to P700 + of photosystem I. The protein is monomeric, with a molecular weight around 10,500 Da, and 99 amino acids in most vascular plants. Metal–ligand bond distances of purple CuA centers (Å). The electron-paramagnetic-resonance (e.p.r.) Indeed, in C. reinhardtii, genes encoding amine oxidases are upregulated in N deficiency (Boyle and Merchant, unpublished). Useful … While plastoquinones are lipid-soluble and therefore move within the thylakoid membrane, plastocyanin moves through the thylakoid lumen. c 6 oxidation contributes to the NIR absorption changes. plastocyanin (PC), a type I blue-copper protein that acts as a thylakoid lumen soluble electron transporter. three-dimensional structure of oxidized poplar ( Populus nigra) plastocyanin has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.7 A resolution [1] and refined to 1.33 A [2]. Plastocyanin was the first of the blue copper proteins to be characterised by X-ray crystallography. In the alga P. boryanum, a 5′ truncated form of the plastocyanin-encoding mRNA (which lacks the initiation codon) is generated in Cu-depleted cells, which prevents the synthesis of the polypeptide (Nakamura et al., 2000). (1972) demonstrated rather convincingly that plastocyanin is present both in the grana and the stroma membranes of spinach chloroplasts. The electronic coupling between the heme and the copper site on the one side and several potentially important amino acid residues on the other is analyzed by the Pathways method. (2000) The Protein Data Bank. Functional equivalence, suggested from biochemistry, was firmly established in the plastocyanin-less mutant pcy1-ac208 of C. reinhardtii (Wood, 1978; Merchant and Bogorad, 1987a). When soluble photosynthetic electron transfer catalysts were isolated from a cyanobacterial bloom in the Potomac, Cyt c6 was abundant, but when the organisms were cultured in the laboratory (in a medium amended with Cu), plastocyanin could be isolated (D. Krogmann, personal communication). Plastocyanin is a blue copper protein that was isolated from plant leaves because of its abundance and spectroscopic properties (Katoh and Takamiya, 1961). The purpose of these modifications is not understood yet, but one view is that they may be required to accommodate the change from use of plastocyanin in photosynthesis to use of a structurally distinct Cyt c6. Plastocyanin was the first of the blue copper proteins to be characterised by X-ray crystallography. The structure of Chlamydomonas plastocyanin has been determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.5 Å (Redinbo et al., 1993). plastocyanin. Select a category... Plastocyanin Cytochromes f Cytochromes c6 Photosystem I Protein Complex Cytochromes Spinacia oleracea Nostoc Prochlorothrix Electron Transport Copper Plants Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins Plant Proteins Chlorophyta Cytochrome b6f Complex Azurin Chloroplasts Cyanobacteria Chlorophyll Oxidation … Gross, in Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (Second Edition), 2013. plastocyanin, P700, S. Katoh, A. San Pietro, A. Takamiya, P.M. Wood Abstract A review is presented of the early history of investigationsinto the function of the blue copper-proteinplastocyanin in photosynthesis. PCC 7120, in which PSI is a tetramer (Watanabe et al., 2014). The signal transduction pathway responsible for the switch between plastocyanin and Cyt c6 was shown in C. reinhardtii to respond directly to Cu rather than to feedback from the redox state of the chloroplast electron transfer chain (Merchant and Bogorad, 1987b). Wildner and Hauska, 1974; Kunert and Böger, 1975, Merchant and Bogorad, 1986a; Li and Merchant, 1995, Marschner's Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants (Third Edition). Evidently, there is a connection to anaerobiosis because CRR1 and its target genes are also required in situations of low O2 tension in C. reinhardtii (Quinn et al., 2002; Eriksson et al., 2004). It is a member of plastocyanin family of copper binding… Interestingly, the green algae that express Cyt c6 as a plastocyanin replacement have also lost the otherwise ubiquitous gene(s) encoding CuZnSOD (Asada et al., 1977). Deconvolution of ferredoxin, plastocyanin, and P700 transmittance changes in intact leaves with a new type of kinetic LED array spectrophotometer Christof Klughammer1 • Ulrich Schreiber1 Received: 24 September 2015/Accepted: 11 January 2016/Published online: 2 February 2016 The Author(s) 2016. It can also function in a cyclic electron transport pathway. The peripheral subunits PsaC, PsaD, and PsaE form the docking site for ferredoxin. It can also lead to toxicity (Toselli et al., 2009), especially in vineyards planted on sandy and acid soils (frequent application of S-based fungicides also increases soil acidity). Chlamydomonas chloroplast cyt c6 has a similar midpoint potential and its structure also been determined by X-ray diffraction (Kerfeld et al., 1995). For instance, if Cu in the medium is sufficient to support the synthesis of 50% of the cellular plastocyanin quota (∼ 8 × 106 molecules per cell), the CYC6 gene is expressed to 50% of its maximal level. All the electron transfer components and most if not all pigments in PSI are bound to the three subunits PSI‐A, B and C ( Schubert et al. Wikipedia. The electron transfer reactions in which they participate rely on complex diffusion steps in a spatially restricted intracellular compartment (the thylakoid lumen), and this may require membrane reorganization (Hervás et al., 1998). It is a member of the plastocyanin family of copper-binding proteins. Plastocyanin, ein Kupferprotein, das bei den Lichtreaktionen der ⇒ Photosynthese als Redoxsystem in der Elektronentransportkette dem Photosystem I (P700) Elektronen vom Cytochrom bf Komplex zuleitet

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